Ph.D. 1995. Geography, Pennsylvania State University. Dissertation: Deforestation and Climate Change in the Selva Lacandona of Chiapas, Mexico.
M.S. 1990. Land Resources, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Thesis: An Evaluation of the Uncertainties in Using General Circulation Models to Assess the Impacts of Global Warming: The Case of Mexico.
B.A. 1985. International Relations, College of William and Mary in Virginia.